Issue №32


Зміст випуску

J. Buravtsova Implementation of river electronic navigation systems and onshore information services on the inland waterways of Ukraine

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.10-17| PDF


Within the framework of the existing ideas on the solution of problematic navigation situations related to ensuring the safety of vessel’s navigation, an assessment was made for determining the impact of e-Navigation on the level of safety, based on using current and important navigational information. The article shows the correct selection of the current and main components of navigational information, taking into account their interconnection, as well as increasing the assessment of the safety indicators of the ship’s navigation. In order to develop inland navigation and meet the standards of the countries of the European Union, Ukraine must use modern systems to improve the level of safety on the inland waterway (IWW). The technical plan was developed, in particular, on the basis of assessment of the impact of e-navigation on reducing the number of navigational accidents for SOLAS and non-SOLAS vessels (the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea). The article is aimed at theoretical assessment of the potential of e-Navigation on IWW of Ukraine by examining and applying the IMO methodology for increasing navigational level. A case study was conducted on the concept of e-Navigation as a model to assess the impact of e-Navigation on the vessel’s safety.

All segments of the transport process and logistics are integrated, as evidenced by global transport trends. As a result, a new type of transport infrastructure began to develop – transport, logistics and freight transport complexes, which formed a united system of interaction. The scientific and technical policy of the transport industry allows for the development of science, innovative technologies and the training system in all areas, including the encouragement of the development and implementation of innovative intelligent transport systems that ensure efficient management of traffic flows and vehicles, which suggests the main goal of improving quality of transport services. In connection with the constant technological development of the industry, it seems possible to further development of e-Navigation strategy as extremely accurate and systematic in ensuring the safety of navigation with prevention dangerous incidents, environmental protection and cost-effective systems. For the implementation of e-Navigation on the IWW of Ukraine, appropriate recommendations were developed.

Keywords: e-Navigation, IWW, safety level, recommendations.

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  4. Raynov, M. Kulakov, I. Medvedieva, J. Oleynik, “Development of a digital RIS index in Ukraine’s inland water-ways in the process of implementing the information portal of the European Union”, Proc. of 24th International Scientific Conference Transport Means, Scopus, 2020, pp. 785-789.
  5. Sun-Bae Hong, “A study on the effects of e-Navigation on reducing vessel accidents,” The Maritime Commons: Digital Respository of the World Maritime University, 2015 [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Oct. 18, 2021].
  6. Weintrit, J. Pietraszkiewicz, W. Piotrzkowski, W. Tycholiz, “E-Navigating in highly-constrained waters: a case study of the Vistula Lagoon,” Cambridge University Press (CUP), doi:10.1017/S0373463320000661, 2021.
  7. Coric, A. Gudelj, Z. Lusic “E-Navigation Architecture Overview and Functional Connection Analysis,” University of Split, doi:10.17818/NM/2019/3.4, 2019.
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L. L. Vagushchenko, A. J. Kozachenko Method of displaying the results of trial plan for collision avoidance

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.18-25| PDF


A method of displaying the results of trial plan for collision avoidance is proposed. It is considered that in general form this plan can be represented by segments of its own ship movement with a constant velocity vector, and sections of this vector change. The basic requirements for displaying trial plan results are formulated.

It is accepted that the domains of danger, which are used in solving the tasks to avoid collision are formed at the target and are convex shapes which are symmetrical about the target course line. These domains can be smooth closed curves or closed broken lines (polygons). A program for simulating the execution of an anti-collision plan is proposed to obtain data on this process. It is noted that the risk of passing the target is the greatest one at the moment when the shortest distance between its domain and own ship is small. The vessels’positions, special point and closest to own ship point of the domain up to this moment are considered to be displayed as trial data. Such data along the own ship path to avoid collision are called informational marks. They represent the demanding attention areas, and allow making the reasonable conclusion on acceptability of anti-collision plan. Algorithms for calculating elements of informational marks, when using elliptical and polygonal danger domains for targets, are determined.

To test the procedure of simulating the implementation of the evading plan and the proposed method of displaying information, a special program was compiled in the Borland Delphi language. This program was used to test the plans to avoid collision in many collision situations applying various forms of targets danger domains. The display of testing results for two segments of the evading plan in a situation with six targets, using circular danger domains with a center shifted towards the nose from the center of the target mass, is presented. Target and own ship dimensions are included in the size of each domain.

Key words: collision avoidance, trial maneuvers, domain of danger, informational mark.

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I.І. Vorokhobin,, I.O. Burmaka, М.О. Кulakov, O.O. Petrychenko A method of electronic chart departmenisation under external control of vessels’ passing in VTS areas

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.26-33| PDF


Hazards to navigation create conditions for emergency situations, even when modern navigation devices are used. Now there are a few protocols of connection between ships, which are equipped with modern intellectual devices. Modern protocols of connection between ships are calculated by artificial intelligence. Using artificial intelligence allow seafarers achieve high level of navigation safety. Ship’s remote-control needs upgrading to achieve new level of safe maneuvering. Only creating new algorithms of system checking, which are used by external operators can improve navigation safety throughout The World Ocean. Integrated method of task’s complex solution is offered by using early determination of emergency factors in course of vessels’ passing under external control in VTS area.

This paper is aimed at the development of a method of safe and gradual transition to autonomous shipping in the future through the use of electronic database of dangerous parameters of ship proximity through their model situational integration into modern ship information systems of electronic charts of VTS operators. Remote control of marine facilities in the future cannot go into the stage of safe implementation without the development of an algorithm for the gradual implementation of the control system by external operators. The transition to unmanned shipping requires the establishment of checkpoints to monitor the reciprocal movement of such facilities. Therefore, it is very important to ensure a safe transition period with the operation of remote control of the external operator of the ship’s traffic control systems with local direct control of the ship by her crew.

The use by qualified operators of vessel traffic control systems of the method of departmentization of the electronic chart to regional orthogonal zones on the basis of areas of unacceptable convergence parameters is just one of such innovative steps in ensuring the functioning of checkpoints. In the future, this method may become a part of the main operating system of intelligent protocol of communication for remote external control of vessels.

Keywords: impermissible parameters of convergence, departmentization of electronic chart, ships’ remote control, safe maneuvering.

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K. Kamieniev, A. Kamienieva, M. Tsymbal Development of a mathematical model for mastering a bay plan problem taking into account the sequence of container loading

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.34-45| PDF


Compiling a load plan for a containership, which incorporates the maximum number of factors which requires restrictions on placement, consideration of the structural constraints for containers/ a vessel, segregation rules for dangerous cargoes and container loading sequencу in respect of a discharge port.

The proposed approach for solving the task on automation of a load plan compilation aboard a containership implies dividing the task into two stages. At the first stage, one calculates the permissible arrangement of containers taking into consideration the structural limitations, container loading sequence, compatibility of dangerous cargoes, at the second stage – one calculates safety parameters (stability, operating life, etc.).

This paper proposes a Boolean mathematical model of integer linear programming, which takes into consideration the structural features of containers, of a vessel, rules for stowage of hazardous cargoes according to the International Maritime Dangerous Cargoes Code, as well as  container loading sequence (sequence of loading containers depending on the port of unloading), as well as a modified additive algorithm for solving a problem on compiling a load plan for a containership.

Boolean programming methodology is applied to the problem. The usage simplifies calculations as all variables can only have two values: “0” or “1”. To validate the mathematical model, we have chosen a classic algorithm that relies on the ideas from the general method of branches and boundaries. Its calculations are limited to operations of addition and subtraction. The main idea consists of a systematic enumeration of possible candidate solutions, but the enumeration procedure allows to eliminate the solutions which are not proved to be optimal.  Taken into account that this mathematical model on loading a containership has a specific form, this algorithmhas been complemented with tests, which make it possible to reject some solutions without direct checking.

The paper gives an example of solving the problem on placing cargoes in the hold, which was obtained through the modified additive algorithm.

Keywords: containerships, load plan, Boolean mathematical model, container loading sequence, dangerous cargoes, additive algorithm.

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N. Konon, O. Pipchenko Analysis of marine accidents involving container ships

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.46-55| PDF


The research presents the analysis of statistics  of the marine accidents involving container vessels, based on 22 marine accident investigation reports covering the period from 2012 to 2019. The analysis is intended to become the basis for specifying the key factors which affect the underestimation of risk assessment  in the course of navigation of container vessels. Although the existing negative experience is set out in the investigation reports, which contain “case studies” with recommended avoiding actions, the tendancy of maritime accidents and incidents persists.

Marine casualties considered are classified as very serious and serious marine casualties according to IMO Circular MSC-MEPC.3/Circ.3 “Casualty-related matters. Reports on marine casualties and incidents”. In order to study the trend of factors leading to marine accidents, the root causes were divided into two groups: primary and secondary. The study looks at the likelihood of several types of accidents within the specified period, defining the collisions  as the most prevalent. Based on the correlation of the results, one of the cases was selected to be described in detail. Possible preventive safety measures for the respective marine accidents have been considered, highlighting the vital role of  situational awareness at all times. 

Keywords: container vessels, safety of navigation, serious marine accidents, situational awareness, collision.

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D. Korban Polarization selection of navigation objects located in the zone of atmospheric formations

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.56-70| PDF


The possibility of polarization selection implementation of the navigation objects located in the area of atmospheric formations by the ship single-position radiolocation station (radar) is considered. The polarization selection of the navigational objects located in the area of atmospheric formations is based on their different electro-physical parameters, which from them electromagnetic waves of different polarization. The process of the polarization selection is controlled by the appropriate choice of polarization, which irradiates the objects of the electromagnetic wave, given the actual Stokes parameters. The interference performance of the objects, observed by the ship’s radar, is represented by means of the Mueller matrices (i.e., dissociation), which have 16 coefficients. The determination of the matrix coefficients of the atmospheric formation dissociation is carried out by their differentiation or integration by the method of Pikar (i.e., the successive approximation).  The coefficients of the atmospheric formation matrix are shown to be variable functions of time, endpoints for all values of the analyzed interval. The division of the time interval into segments, in which the coefficients of the matrix are considered constant, allows them to be calculated using Baker’s formula. The practical implementation of the polarization selection of the navigation objects located in the zone of atmospheri formations, is based on the measurement of the coefficients of the dispersion matrix by the intermittent sampling of objects by non-polarized wave, double line wave, and circular polarization.

Keywords: polarization selection, navigation object, atmospheric objects, electromagnetic wave, Mueller matrix, Stokes parameters, sequential approximation method, differentiation and integration operators, dynamic system, electrophysical parameters of objects, reflecting property of objects.


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O.F. Kryvyi, M.V. Miyusov, M.O. Kryvyi Mathematical modeling of the operation of ship's propellers with different maneuvering modes

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.71-87| PDF


In the study of ship maneuvers, in the development of ship’s autopilots and simulators, the availability of adequate mathematical models of the ship’s propulsion complex, which would describe with high accuracy the dynamics of the ship for the widest ranges of phase coordinates, plays a decisive role. Mathematical models of ship dynamics consist of mathematical models of inertial and non-inertial forces and moments on the ship’s hull. The latter include hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces and moments on the ship’s hull, forces and moments caused by the operation of propellers, rigging, ship rudders. For the adequacy of the general mathematical model of the ship’s dynamics, the adequacy of the mathematical models of all components of non-inertial forces and moments on the ship’s hull is necessary. Mathematical models of non-inertial forces and moments on a ship’s hull are usually empirical and made by processing data from experimental tests in ship model basin or in full-scale sea trials. In particular, this applies to the forces and moments caused by the operation of the propeller. In the mathematical modeling of the indicated forces and moments, the rectilinear movement of the vessel, or movement at small values of the drift angles, is usually considered. In this case, only the longitudinal action of the propeller is usually considered, and the transverse component of the force and the moment on the ship’s propeller are unreasonably neglected. In addition, well-known mathematical models usually contain coefficients and functions that are difficult to determine using tables and graphs, which is inconvenient for numerical modeling. This work is intended to somewhat eliminate the indicated disadvantages. In particular, it was investigated how the curvilinear movement of the ship affects the operation of the propeller, analyzed the existing mathematical models, and new effective mathematical models of the longitudinal and transverse components of the force and moment caused by the operation of the ship’s propeller in dimensional and dimensionless forms were proposed. In particular, representations are obtained for the dimensionless coefficients of the propeller stop and the moment on the propeller shaft, the wake fraction coefficient, the thrust-deduction factor, and skew of the flow on the propeller. It is shown how these parameters change for all possible values of the drift angle and angular velocity. For a number of commercial vessels of various types, technical characteristics are given, and parameters for constructing mathematical models of the dynamics of the propeller are calculated.

Keywords: mathematical models, ship propellers, curvilinear motion, longitudinal and transverse components of forces and moment, dimensionless coefficients – the wake fraction coefficient, and the thrust-deduction factor.

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K.O. Siniuta Ship handling in case of disturbance during sequential calculation and observation of ship motion

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.88-94| PDF


Controllability is an important maritime quality that determines the efficiency of ship handling. When developing course control systems, it is necessary to take into account the operational characteristics of the vessel, as well as external factors affecting it. The complexity of ship handling, as an object of handling, arises due to the continuous influence of various factors that affect the controllability of the ship. The environmental conditions in which the course management task has to be solved are diverse – stormy weather, ice conditions, shallow water, tides, restricted waters(congested areas), proximity of other vessels, etc. All these factors cannot be comprehensively taken into account by traditional mathematical methods, while ensuring the necessary adequacy of real processes.

This paper considers existing approaches to controlling the movement of a ship on a course, such as course control, disturbance control, ship movement control on a course based on the principle of long-term prediction, lateral deviation, intellectual approaches to ship control.

The most necessary way to improve the quality of the vessel’s course is to control the disturbance by consistently calculating and observing the vessel’s movement. The main disturbing effect in stabilizing the course is caused by sea waves. In stormy weather, forced oscillations are imposed on the ship’s own motions on the course. The amplitude and period of yawing depend on the level of sea state, the direction and strength of the wind, the tonnage of the vessel, its loading condition, speed, effectiveness of the rudder and the law of control. There is a need to increase the accuracy of determining the direct relationship between the measured value of the external perturbation and the magnitude of the yaw angle.

The article provides an algorithm for calculating the return of the vessel to the path line, taking into account the modulus and direction of natural disturbance obtained as a result of observation of the ship’s position.

Keywords: controllability, perturbation, deviation.

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I. Surinov, V. Shemonayev, Yu. Kazak Information support of operator activity in organizing the tug service

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.95-102| PDF


Today, the tugs operatingin ports are of a different type and capacity and mostly depend on ship size and port-external conditions of the port (wind, waves, current and shallow water). The main risks at ports, which are pointed out by some authors, can be classified as follows: poor ship and port staff knowledge and training; the human factor in general; poor maintenance of port tugs; poor communication between all parties during a ship’s arrival at or departure from the port, as well as mooring operations (in the case that the ship’s crew, port pilot and tugs masters communicate in different languages); poor or outdated tug equipment; poor safety culture.

When the vessel navigates in areas with hazardous sections of the waterway, entering and leaving the port, as well as when performing mooring operations to ensure the necessary maneuverability of the vessel and maintain navigational safety at the proper level, line and/or port pilots, escort and harbor tugs are additionally involved. The most dangerous are situations of a ship’s power plant failure during maneuvering in confined waters when tugboats become the only means of control that can prevent an accident. During pilotage in international waters, the process of interaction between the ship’s crew, pilots and tugs is complicated by the presence of language and cultural barriers, which complicates effective synergy. Therefore, proper training is essential to maintain an adequate level of safety.

In this paper, a plan for maneuvering with the use of the operational effort of tugs in extreme situations has been developed, and a checklist for organizational and administrative preparation of the ship’s controls for operation in extreme conditions has been proposed.

Keywords: tugs, emergency situation, maneuvering in port, management system.


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I. Surinov Comparison of emergency situations during ships’ navigation under extreme conditions

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.103-110| PDF


Sea-going vessels spend about 80% of their sailing time  at the open sea and about 20% under extreme conditions in confined waters. However, the number of accidents under extreme conditions is more than 90% of their total. As a result of sea disasters, about 200 thousand people die annually in the world, of which 50 thousand – directly in the water after a shipwreck, and 50 thousand die on life-saving appliances in conditions that are not really extreme. The main factors of accidents at sea, which can develop into emergencies, are violations of safety of navigation. Statistics show that most often these violations lead to navigation accidents. In total, ship collisions, bulkheads and groundings account for at least 80% of the accidents. The main reason for these situations is “human factor “, which has not been sufficiently studied and is constantly developing. Firstly, it concerns the adequate actions of operators of complex systems  being in inadequate (emergency and emergency) operation of the vehicle. In this sense, to become relevant, the research must harmonize the interaction between phenomena, processes, mechanisms and systems controlled by ship operators. Special attention is paid to increasing the safety of operation of ships using the methods of event management during pre-pilot training of ship crews in crewing companies.

The analysis of emergency situations during ships’ navigation under extreme conditions plays a significant role while studying  crew behavior in such situations. Based on the statistical data, a special checklist was developed that will help prepare crew members for actions in emergency situations. Also, this checklist will provide an opportunity to reduce the risk of a pre-emergency situation.

Keywords: emergency situations, checklist, extreme conditions, crew actions, navigation training.


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V.Y. Shemonayev, I.L. Surinov Ship crew management in emergency on the example of a shipping company

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.111-119| PDF


Risk is like queering someone or something valued to an unknown or anticipated danger, harm, or loss. Even though there is no such universally accepted general definition of risk, but one commonly applied and authoritative resolution in most industrial contexts defines risk as “A combination of the probability, or frequency, of occurrence of a defined hazard and the magnitude of the consequences of the occurrence.”

According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO), risk is the “combination of the frequency and the severity of the consequence”, thereby articulates two components of the likelihood of occurrence and the probability of severity of the (un)predictable consequences.

“Safety management objectives of the company should establish safeguards against all identified risks” so has been stated in the paragraph of the ISM Code (International Safety Management Code). However, this does not determine any particular approach to the risk management theory, and it is for the company itself to choose methods appropriate in accordance with its organizational structure, its ships and trades. The methods could vary accordingly but how ever more or less formal they are, they should be well organized and planned if assessment and responses are meant to be completed and act effectively.

Keywords: accident, risk, world shipping, vessel, crew, safety management, risk management theory.

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V. Y. Shemonayev Methodologies and approaches to accident investigation into marine casualties and marine incidents

DOI: 10.31653/2306-5761.32.2021.120-130| PDF


High-priority question now is to provide a common approach for States to adopt in the conduct of marine safety investigations into marine casualties and marine incidents. Marine safety investigations do not seek to apportion blame or determine liability. Instead a marine safety investigation is an investigation conducted with the objective of preventing marine casualties and marine incidents in the future. This aim will be achieved through States:

– applying consistent methodology and approach, to enable and encourage a broad ranging investigation, where necessary, in the interests of uncovering the causal factors and other safety risks;

– providing reports to the Organization to enable a wide dissemination of information to assist the international marine industry to address safety issues.

A marine safety investigation should be separate from, and independent of, any other form of investigation. However, not precluding any other form of investigation, including investigations for action in civil, criminal and administrative proceedings. Further, a State or States conducting a marine safety investigation should not refrain from fully reporting on the causal factors of a marine casualty or marine incident because blame or liability, may be inferred from the findings.

Each flag State has a duty to conduct an investigation into any casualty occurring to any of its ships, when it judges that such an investigation may assist in determining what changes in the present regulations may be desirable, or if such a casualty has produced a major deleterious effect upon the environment. A flag State shall cause an inquiry to be held, by or before a suitably qualified person or persons into certain marine casualties or marine incidents of navigation on the high seas.

However, if a marine casualty or marine incident occurs within the territory, including the territorial sea, of a State, that State has a right to investigate the cause of any such marine casualty or marine incident which might pose a risk to life or to the environment, involve the coastal State’s search and rescue authorities, or otherwise affect the coastal State.

Keywords: accident, risk, investigation, vessel, crew, casualty, the coastal State.

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